How is functioning measured in the data?
Functionality based on the quality and quantity of water supply facilities
Pamsimas facilitates the assessment of functioning based on the physical quality and quantity of water supply facilities that serve the community. When Pamsimas is completed (1 year after), the quality and quantity of the facility is 100% complete and fully functioning, but from time to time the facility is damaged due to the quality of operation and maintenance. This happens in many villages so it needs to be monitored to find out the conditions in the whole villages in Pamsimas. Since 2008, Pamsimas has built more than 20,000 villages in 33 provinces with the target 27,000 by 2020.
How to calculate the functioning?
- If there is damage with the quantity and quality of facilities <20%, then it is said to be fully functioning (green)
- If there is damage with the quantity and quality of facilities 20% -60%, then it is said to be partially functioning (yellow)
- If there is damage with the quantity and quality of facilities > 40%, then it is said to be not functioning (red)
Pamsimas built various types of WS technology options with the different type of facilities, of course, different ways to calculate physical damage. The technology option in Pamsimas refers to the type of water source, energy source, type of water treatment, type of distribution, and type of services. But the most appropriate way to calculate function is to check the decrease or increase in the level of service (refer to the type of service facilities). At the service level, the type of facilities consists of public hydrants, public taps, and house connections that are directly connected to the community. If there are the number of service units damaged that have an impact on reducing the number of beneficiaries, then the functioning will decrease. The case, we found the borehole collapsed and the pump inside was broken causing no water to be distributed to the service unit, so a village was not functioning. The same example is dry at spring water when dry seasons.
Functionality based on the number of users
The others calculation, the functioning refers to the decrease and increase in the number of water users. Assuming if the facility is fully functioning, all users enjoy the Pamsimas services. Conversely, if the facilities are reduced or damaged, then the number of Pamsimas users decreases.
- If the water user decreases <20%, it is said to be fully functioning (green)
- If water users decrease by 20% -60%, then it is said to be partially functioning (yellow)
- If the water user decreases> 60%, it is said to be not functioning (red)
However, we found that a few facilities have fully functioning status but were not used by the community because they already had better existing facilities, cases such as being declared not functioning. This is due to miss targeting, technical issues, and misplaced facilities that allow citizens to be unable to access even though the facilities are fully functional.
Is functioning correlated with water tariffs?
Water tariffs are used to finance operations and maintenance to ensure optimum service in the community. In the operation phase, water tariffs are used to pay electricity costs if the type of technology option is a borehole and an electrical submersible pump. Energy sources from electric or generator-set require a monthly fee to pay electricity bills to electricity companies (PLN). If they use a generator-set, they need to buy fuel. In water treatment options, it takes a fee to buy chemicals and replace filter material regularly.
Some equipment and water facilities require regular maintenance so that it does not break down quickly, but must be replaced if the lifetime is finished. Replacement of materials such as filter materials, plugs, pipes, and fittings need the cost of a water tariff.
Operations and maintenance are carried out by BPSPAMS who volunteer, however, they need money to simply for transportation, foods and drinks, but not monthly salaries.
So, if there is no water tariff, then all operations and maintenance will never occur which in turn causes the facility to not function.
In Pamsimas, we categorize water tariff as below
- No tariff (red)
- Tariff < cost of operation and maintenance (yellow)
- Tariff >= cost of operation and maintenance (green)
- Tariff >= cost of operation and maintenance + cost recovery (blue)
Trimo Pamudji Al Djono
(Director at Yayasan Ipehijau and Consultant at development bank)